Cairo was the first Faba bean cultivar to be selected specifically for adaptation to northern NSW and southern Queensland. It’s combination of yield, seed size and disease resistance is a significant advantage over varieties currently available in this region. Cairo is seen as a replacement for all the current commercial varieties used in the northern grain belt. Cairo is a significant variety in the northern areas of NSW and southern QLD. Cairo is a white flowering, broad leaf style faba bean with medium height (60-100cm). Flowering occurs in 50-75 days, depending on the planting date and is similar to Fiord and Barkool in NNSW. Typically 2 to 4 medium sized seeds are produced per pod.
Consult your preferred agronomist / advisor for up to date advice on Cairo’s pest resistance and associated management decisions.
Variety Management / Agronomy:
Cairo is recommended as a replacement for Fiord and Barkool in areas from the Macquarie Valley of NSW north to southern Queensland. A variety specific best management practice (VSMP) has been developed specifically for Cairo and can be obtained from Heritage Seeds. Seedbed preparation, herbicide use, planting date, plant population, row spacing, fertiliser requirements, water use and insect management should remain unchanged. The use of best management practices are encouraged.
Rust: Cairo is moderately resistant to rust (Uromyces vicea-fabae) and is therefore superior to the susceptible varieties Fiord, Barkool and Fiesta. Resistance will provide adequate control of this disease in most situations. In the most severe epidemics, the level of resistance in Cairo will reduce (but not eliminate) the need for fungicide sprays to control this disease.
Chocolate Spot: Cairo has low levels of resistance to Chocolate Spot. Chocolate Spot resistance is superior to Fiord and Barkool but less than Fiesta and Icarus. Cairo resistance is too low to make any significant difference to management of this disease.
Ascochyta Blight: Ascochyta is currently of not significant in the northern region. Cairo has been tested at the Waite Institute in South Australia and displayed a similar level of resistance to Fiord. Cairo poses no greater risk than existing cultivars.
Virus Diseases: Cairo has been tested against Bean leafroll virus (BLRV) at Tamworth and Breeza with no useful resistance to this virus. However, disease scores for Cairo have been lower than Fiord and Fiesta allowing the general conclusion that there is no extra risk from BLRV when growing Cairo.
Seeding rates for faba beans vary according to seed size and sowing time. Faba beans can yield well over a wide range of plant populations under favorable conditions. Trials conducted in northern and southern NSW under dryland conditions show that higher plant populations have a yield advantage. Later sown crops require a higher plant population to minimise potential yield loss. Plant population of 15 and 20 plants/m2 have not reduced yields on row spacings of 50–100 cm in northern NSW dryland and southern NSW irrigated crops respectively.
Typically – target established plant populations are as follows:
- QLD & Northern NSW (Dryland) 15 - 25 plants/m2
- QLD & Northern NSW (Irrigated) 15 - 20 plants/m2
Cairo usually offers an average 100 seed weight of 60 grams (ranges from 50 – 75).
To achieve an established plant population of 20 plants/m2 – utilising an establishment percentage of 90% (which is reasonable unless sowing in adverse conditions) with high germination % - a sowing rate of approximately 140 to 150 kg / ha may be considered typical.
A formula can be initiated to calculate sowing rates – taking into account target plant density, germination percentage, seed size and establishment rates.
1000 seed weight in grams = 35
Target plant population / sq metre = 140
Establishment % = 80
Germination % = 90
Sowing Rate = 35 x 140 / 100 / (0.8 x 0.9)
Sowing Rate = 68 kg/ha
2005 - 2011 Northern NSW NVT - Main Season